Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, and is sometimes considered the father of modern psychology. His ideas and concepts attempted to explain the dynamics of the unconscious mind. According to Freud’s structural theory, the mind consists of three parts: the id, ego and superego.
Parts of the Mind
The id is the primal portion of the mind. It is inherently self-centered and is the basis of emotions. The superego is the highest level of conscience, passing value judgments and introducing such higher-order feelings as guilt. The ego is the rational mind, which acts as a gatekeeper and moderator between the id and the superego.
The ego is also the conscious, waking mind. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the ego to moderate behavior in ways that are consistent with societal expectations and norms. If the id is allowed to make decisions unchecked, then the ego is attacked by the superego. On the other hand, if the superego is given free rein, then the id will feel attacked and will lash out.
The ego attempts to modulate these conflicting goals by using a number of coping mechanisms. Repression and sublimation are two of the most common.
In repression, the ego attempts to “forget” that the conflict exists. Hypnotists that claim to bring forward repressed memories base their work in the Freudian theory of repression.
In sublimation, the ego attempts to rechannel an unacceptable drive into a more socially useful outlet. This technique is demonstrated in a humorous way in the character of Orin Scrivello, the sadistic dentist in the film Little Shop of Horrors.
Theory of Phobias
The psychoanalytic theory of phobias is based largely on the theories of repression and displacement. It is believed that phobias are the product of unresolved conflicts between the id and the superego. Psychoanalysts generally believe that the conflict originated in childhood, and was either repressed or displaced onto the feared object. The object of the phobia is not the original source of the anxiety.
Psychoanalytic treatment involves exploring the organization of the personality and reorganizing it in a way that addresses deep conflicts and defenses. According to the principles of psychoanalysis, curing the phobia is only possible by rooting out and solving the original conflict.
Psychoanalysis is the form of therapy often seen in old movies. The client generally lies on a couch with the psychoanalyst seated near his or her head. The psychoanalyst does not inject his or her own opinions, but allows the client to transfer feelings onto the analyst.
Psychoanalysis is not as popular today as it was a few decades ago, but is still a treatment used to address deep seated personality issues. The process is generally lengthy, often lasting for many years. It also tends to be expensive, as analysts must undergo extensive training after their regular Psychiatry or Psychology training is complete.Source:
Compton MD, Allan. “The Psychoanalytic View of Phobias: Part I Freud's Theories of Phobias and Anxiety.” Psychoanalytic Quarterly. 1992. 61:2. p. 206. March 14, 2008.